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Conta-Pack Pty Ltd

Brisbane
Phone: (07) 3333 2281
Fax: (07) 3889 3624
Sales
sales@contapack.com.au
Melbourne
Phone: (03) 8682 8604
Sydney
Phone: (02) 9011 6222

Email Orders/Enquirys

sales@contapack.com.au

Please provide your full delivery address with post code. (No P.O. Boxes) Contact name/Company name and Contact phone number.

Storage of Bottles and Closures.

All Bottles, Jars and Closures must be stored in a cool dry location out of direct sunlight.

PET Bottles And Jars.

With respect to PET Bottles and Jars - they are particularly susceptible to heat and sunlight and particular care should be taken. PET bottles and Jars exhibit particular tell tale faults if stored incorrectly.

The UN Packaging Certification Process


Since January 1, 1991, all dangerous goods in international marine and international or domestic air transport have been required to be in packaging displaying the "UN Code". The mark indicates that the packaging design has been tested in accordance with the recommendations ("Specification") of the "United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods".

All packaging that has been qualified as "UN Certified" or "UN Approved", must have first passed some rigorous testing procedures. These test procedures are intended to ensure that packaging which will contain hazardous materials can withstand normal conditions of transportation and are considered to represent the minimum acceptable design standards/requirements.

The design requirements consist of a number of performance oriented tests related to packaging integrity. The severity of the tests varies according to the Packing Group. The purpose of the tests is to prove a design to the Packing Group level of performance. The objective is a design that, when filled and closed for shipment, will consistently perform at that level. The tests are not intended to represent all transport conditions, but are rather a supplement to an overall design process that must take into account the particular application of the packaging.

Packaging is tested in the "as for shipment" condition, and there are four main tests to which it is subjected. These are the drop test; the stacking test; the leakproof test; and the hydrostatic test. Each of these four tests has specific guidelines set up to ensure that the packaging being tested will conform to the respective packing group requirement.

This testing is a comprehensive process, carried out by independent laboratories who are legally authorized to issue a formal UN certification of the "worthiness" of the packaging for use with hazardous materials. (The primary UN requirements document alone weighs 2 kilos (4.4lbs).)


A brief overview of each test is shown below.


UN Certification - Drop Test (for all packaging):

A. General. The drop test must be conducted for the qualification of all packaging design types. For other than flat drops, the center of gravity of the test packaging must be vertically over the point of impact. Where more than one orientation is possible for a given drop test, the orientation most likely to result in failure of the packaging must be used.

For testing of single or composite packaging constructed of stainless steel, nickel, or monel alloy the drop test may be conducted with two samples, one sample each for the two drop orientations. These samples may have been previously used for the hydrostatic pressure of stacking test.

B.Special preparation of test samples for the drop test. Testing of plastic drums, plastic jerricans, plastic boxes other than expanded polystyrene boxes, composite packagings (plastic material), and combination packagings with plastic inner packagings other than plastic bags intended to contain solids or articles must be carried out when temperature of the test sample and its contents has been reduced to -18C (0F) or lower. Test liquids must be kept in their liquid state, if necessary, by the addition of anti-freeze.

The UN Committee assigned all dangerous goods to one of three Packing Groups:

Packing Group I - High danger

Packing Group II - Medium danger

Packing Group III - Low danger

For solids and liquids when the test is performed with the hazardous material to be transported or with a non-hazardous material having essentially the same physical characteristic, the drop height is determined according to packing group as follows:

Packing Group I - 1.8 m (5.9 feet)

Packing Group II - 1.2 m (3.9 feet)

Packing Group III - 0.8 m (2.6 feet)

For liquids, if the test is performed with water where the materials to be carried have a specific gravity not exceeding 1.2, the drop height is determined according to packing group as follows:

Packing Group I - 1.8 m (5.9 feet)

Packing Group II - 1.2 m (3.9 feet)

Packing Group III - 0.8 m (2.6 feet)

For liquids, if the test is performed with water where the materials to be carried have a specific gravity exceeding 1.2, the drop height must be calculated on the basis of the specific gravity of the materials to be carried, rounded up to the first decimal, as follows:

Packing Group I - SG x 1.5 m (4.9 feet)

Packing Group II - SG x 1.0 m (3.3 feet)

Packing Group III - SG x 0.67 m (2.2 feet)

UN Certification - Stacking Test (for all packaging except bags):

This test is required for all packaging whether designed to contain a solid or a liquid. The test sample is subjected to a force applied to the top surface of the test packaging equivalent to the total weight of identical packages which might be stacked on it during transport. The minimum height of the stack, including the test sample, must be 3.0 m (10 feet). The duration of the test lasts 28 days and is performed at a temperature of not less than 40C (104F).

UN Certification - Leakproof Test (for all liquid packaging):

The leakproof test is performed using compressed air or suitable gases on all packaging intended to contain liquids. The design qualification test procedure involves submerging a container with a closure under water while internal pressure is applied. The test is conducted for a minimum of five minutes with the following pressures applied per packing group.

Packing Group I - Not less than 30 kPa (4 psi)

Packing Group II - Not less than 20 kPa (3 psi)

Packing Group III - Not less than 20 kPa (3 psi))

Packaging passes the test if there is no leakage of air from the packaging.

In addition to the initial qualification test, a production test must be implemented on all containers designed to contain liquids. This production test ensures that all packagings intended for the containment of hazardous material liquids, are free from manufacturing defects such as pin-hole leaks. This test is generally applied with a leak-tester on the production line of the particular packaging. Failure to implement a leak-test during production can result in penalties or fines assessed.

UN Certification - Hydrostatic Pressure Test (for all liquid packaging):

This test is required for all packaging intended to contain liquids. The purpose of the test is to ensure that no leakage of liquid occurs due to vapor pressure build-up at various temperatures. Because certain chemicals can emit a vapor that increases as the temperature changes, packagings must be built to withstand the internal pressure that is created. An example of this might be gasoline. As the temperature rises, gasoline vapors expand, thus creating an internal pressure on the container.

The test involves filling the packaging to its prescribed level and applying an internal pressure for at least 30 minutes. The test pressure must be applied continuously and evenly, and it must be kept constant throughout the test period. A hydraulic pressure gauge is connected to the top of the receptacle to record the pressure.

The determination of the hydrostatic pressure rating for packaging selection is dependent upon the interaction between the hazardous materials vapor pressure and the temperature.

To determine if a packaging kPa rating meets the needs for a liquid hazardous material, of two temperatures is selected to determine the vapor pressure.

Temperature #1.

Method A. The gauge pressure (pressure in the non-bulk container above ambient atmospheric pressure) measured in the non-bulk container at 55C (131F) multiplied by a safety factor of 1.5. This pressure must be determined on the basis of the non-bulk container being filled and closed to no more than 98 percent capacity at 15C (60F).

Method B. If absolute pressure (vapor pressure of the hazardous materials plus the atmospheric pressure) is used. Multiply the vapor pressure of the hazardous material at 55C (131F) by a safety factor of 1.5 and subtract 100 kPa (14.5 psi). If his method is chosen, the hydrostatic test pressure applied must be at least 100 kPa gauge pressure (14.5 psi).

Temperature #2.

Method C. If absolute pressure (vapor pressure of the hazardous material plus atmospheric pressure) is used, multiply the vapor pressure of the hazardous materials at 50C (122F) by a safety factor of 1.75 and subtract 100 kPa (14.5 psi). If this method is chosen, the hydrostatic test pressure applied must be at least 100 kPa gauge pressure (14.5 psi).

Note: Packaging intended to contain hazardous materials of Packing Group I must be tested to a minimum test pressure of 250 kPa (36 psi).

UN Certification:

Only after all these tests have been successfully completed can the testing body issue the UN Certification and the manufacturer include the appropriate "UN marking" on the packaging to indicate that it complies with the UN Specification.

A Brief Footnote:

The Committee actually included another test - the "Vibration Test" - in the "Orange Book". Although sometimes performed, it is still the subject of much ongoing discussion and has yet to be formally adopted. Why? Further research has shown that much of the impact of vibration during transport is a function of the location of the container within the vehicle e.g. placement directly above the rear axle(s) of a truck subjects the container to significantly higher "stress" than, for example, equidistant between the front and rear axles (this is a well known phenomenon to any regular bus rider). As yet, an appropriate simulation has yet to be agreed upon.